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"The Movement of Poetry and its Trends in the Maghreb and Andalusia" is the focus of the third session of the "Albabtain Cultural Foundation."

March 21, 2023

Salem: The emergence of the poetry movement in the Maghreb coincided with political, social, and cultural transformations.

Mekki: The Andalusians composed poetry for traditional purposes such as love, asceticism, Sufism, praise, satire, and elegy.

The series of sessions titled "Albabtain Encyclopedia and Spaces of Arabic Poetry" continues, this time focusing on the lands of the Islamic Maghreb and Al-Andalus. The third session was held, with the topic "Albabtain Encyclopedia and Spaces of Arabic Poetry in the Maghreb and Al-Andalus." In this session, Dr. Abdullah Mohammed Salem was scheduled to speak, but due to unforeseen circumstances, he was represented by Dr. Nour Al-Huda Badis from Tunisia, who presented his research on "The Poetry Movement and its Trends in the Islamic Maghreb."

The second segment of the session was presented by Dr. Mohamed Abdulrazaq Al-Mekki, with the topic "The Poetry Movement and its Trends in Al-Andalus." The session was moderated by Dr. Salem Abbas Khaddada.

At the outset, the lecturer discussed the poetry movement and its trends in the Islamic Maghreb. He pointed out that the emergence of the poetry movement in the Maghreb coincided with political, social, and cultural transformations witnessed by the Moroccan society. These developments had their impact on the literary scene in general and on the poetry movement in particular.

Dr. Salem mentioned that the modern Arab poetry movement began with the Islamic conquests, during which a conservative orientation was adopted. This orientation involved following the traditions of ancient Arab poetry. Maghrebi poets composed their poetry according to the purposes of classical Arab poetry, encompassing praise, boasting, satire, and love, while adhering to the structural framework of the classical Arabic ode. This approach was driven by a desire to align with traditional trends. He noted that during this period, conservative poets emerged. Furthermore, he emphasized that poetry in the Islamic Maghreb was not influenced by pre-Islamic (Jahili) poetry, but rather its influence was rooted in Abbasid poetry. In conclusion, the lecturer asserted that discussing the poetry movement and its trends in the Maghreb cannot be straightforward unless it is based on research into some of the traditional foundations of this poetry.

In the second part of the session, which focused on the poetry movement and its trends in Al-Andalus, Dr. Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Al-Mekki examined poetry in Al-Andalus and its literary movement. He pointed out the scarcity of sources on this topic and highlighted several factors that played a significant role in shaping the poetic landscape in Al-Andalus. These factors or trends, as the speaker referred to them, were primarily categorized as political, social, and religious orientations. Regarding the political aspect, the speaker emphasized that its influence was evident in the emergence of genres like praise, elegy, and satire, which were not as prominent before. On the other hand, the religious orientation had an impact on what came to be known as Sufi poetry. The cultural evolution also played a pivotal role in the emergence of phenomena such as composing elegies on tombstones, poetic compositions, and celebrating the beauty of nature.

The speaker mentioned that the Andalusians composed poetry for various traditional purposes, including love, satire, asceticism, Sufism, praise, satire, and elegy. They evolved the genre of elegy by creating "elegies for vanished cities and kingdoms" and were influenced by the political events of the time, leading to the creation of "plea poetry." They also expanded their descriptions of the Andalusian environment and introduced the art of "muwashshahat" and "azjal."

He stated that the literary figures of Al-Andalus were influenced by the literary figures of the East, although their literature exhibited distinct characteristics due to the nature of the environment in which they lived. Consequently, their literature vividly depicted this life with a more accurate portrayal.

He concluded by mentioning two specific observations about Andalusian poetry. The first observation is that Andalusian poetry followed in its meters, rhyme schemes, and purposes the path taken by the poetry of the East, with the exception of the genres of "mawshahat" and "zajal." The second observation is that the schools of poetry in Al-Andalus were not as obvious as they were in the East.

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